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Cells in the Human Body

Cells form tissue, tissues form organs, organs form organ systems and these systems come together to complete the human body. Let's find out different types of cells in the human body which are considered to be the basic unit of the human body.
The smallest unit of life, cells carry out the basic functions of the body. Cells are bound by a membrane; the nucleus & organelles are important components of cells. We shall discuss the various types of cells present in the body and the functions that they perform.

Cell Types

The different types of cells found in the human body are enlisted in theĀ given tables. Let us start with the skin which is the outermost part of the body.

Skin Cells or Integumentary Cells

  • Epidermal keratinocyte
  • Keratinocyte of fingernails and toenails
  • Epidermal basal cell
  • Medullary hair shaft cell
  • Nail bed basal cell
  • Cuticular hair shaft cell
  • Cortical hair shaft cell
  • Hair root sheath cell of Huxley's layer
  • Cuticular hair root sheath cell
  • External hair root sheath cell
  • Hair root sheath cell of Henle's layer
  • Hair matrix cell

Nervous System

Neurons of Central Nervous System
  • Astrocyte
  • Oligodendrocyte
  • Neuron cells
  • Spindle neuron
Autonomic Neuron Cells
  • Peptidergic neural cell
  • Cholinergic neural cell
  • Adrenergic neural cell

Sensory Transducer Cells

  • Photoreceptor cells of retinas in the eyes
  • Olfactory receptor neuron
  • Pain-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Merkel cell of epidermis
  • Cold-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Heat-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Auditory outer hair cell of the organ of Corti
  • Basal cell of olfactory epithelium
  • Auditory inner hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Touch-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Proprioceptive primary sensory neurons
  • Type I hair cell in the vestibular apparatus of the ear
  • Type II hair cell of vestibular apparatus of ear
  • Type I carotid body cell
  • Type II carotid body cell
  • Type I taste bud cell

Peripheral Neuron Supporting and Sense Organ Cells

  • Outer phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Inner phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Inner pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Hensen cell of organ of Corti
  • Border cell of organ of Corti
  • Taste bud supporting cell
  • Vestibular apparatus supporting cell
  • Schwann cell
  • Olfactory epithelium supporting cell
  • Enteric glial cell
  • Satellite cell

Hormone Secreting Cells

  • Somatotropes
  • Thyrotropes
  • Lactotropes
  • Corticotropes
  • Gonadotrope cells
  • Magnocellular neurosecretory cells
  • Intermediate pituitary cell
  • Thyroid gland cells
  • Gut and respiratory tract cells
  • Adrenal gland cells
  • Parathyroid gland cells
  • Leydig cell of testes
  • Corpus luteum cell
  • Theca interna cell
  • Macula densa cell
  • Juxtaglomerular cell
  • Mesangial cell
  • Peripolar cell

Gland Cells

  • Salivary gland serous cell
  • Salivary gland mucous cell
  • Mammary gland cell
  • Von Ebner's gland cell in tongue
  • Ceruminous gland cell in ear
  • Lacrimal gland cell
  • Eccrine sweat gland clear cell
  • Eccrine sweat gland dark cell
  • Gland of Moll cell in eyelid
  • Apocrine sweat gland cell
  • Bowman's gland cell in nose
  • Sebaceous gland cell
  • Seminal vesicle cell
  • Brunner's gland cell in duodenum
  • Bowman's gland cell in nose
  • Prostate gland cell
  • Seminal vesicle cell
  • Bartholin's gland cell
  • Bulbourethral gland cell
  • Uterus endometrium cell
  • Gland of Littre cell
  • Stomach lining mucous cell
  • Isolated goblet cell
  • Gastric gland oxyntic cell
  • Gastric gland zymogenic cell
  • Paneth cell of small intestine
  • Pancreatic acinar cell
  • Clara cell of lung
  • Type II pneumocyte of lung

Epithelial Cells

  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial fenestrated cell
  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial splenic cell
  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial continuous cell
  • Serosal cell
  • Synovial cell
  • Squamous cell
  • Columnar cell
  • Vestibular membrane cell
  • Dark cell
  • Stria vascularis marginal cell
  • Stria vascularis basal cell
  • Cell of Boettcher
  • Cell of Claudius
  • Pia-arachnoid squamous cell
  • Choroid plexus cell
  • Nonpigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye
  • Pigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye
  • Corneal endothelial cell
  • Extracellular Matrix Secretion Cells
  • Ameloblast epithelial cell
  • Organ of Corti interdental epithelial cell
  • Planum semilunatum epithelial cell
  • Corneal fibroblasts
  • Loose connective tissue fibroblasts
  • Bone marrow reticular tissue fibroblasts
  • Tendon fibroblasts Pericyte
  • Other nonepithelial fibroblasts
  • Cementoblast/cementocyte
  • Nucleus pulposus cell of intervertebral disc
  • Hyaline cartilage chondrocyte
  • Odontoblast/odontocyte
  • Elastic cartilage chondrocyte
  • Fibrocartilage chondrocyte
  • Osteoprogenitor cell
  • Osteoblast/osteocyte
  • Stellate cell of perilymphatic space of ear
  • Hyalocyte of vitreous body of eye
  • Pancreatic stellate cell
  • Hepatic stellate cell

Immune System and Blood Cells

  • Erythrocyte
  • Monocyte
  • Megakaryocyte
  • Epidermal Langerhans cell
  • Connective tissue macrophage
  • Dendritic cell
  • Osteoclast
  • Neutrophil granulocyte
  • Microglial cell
  • Basophil granulocyte
  • Eosinophil granulocyte
  • Helper T cell
  • Mast cell
  • Cytotoxic T cell
  • Suppressor T cell
  • B cell
  • Natural Killer T cell
  • Reticulocyte
  • Natural killer cell
  • Stem cell

Contractile Cells

  • White skeletal muscle cell
  • Red skeletal muscle cell
  • Nuclear bag cell of muscle spindle
  • Intermediate skeletal muscle cell
  • Nuclear chain cell of muscle spindle
  • Purkinje fiber cell
  • Satellite cell
  • Ordinary heart muscle cell
  • Nodal heart muscle cell
  • Myoepithelial cell of iris
  • Smooth muscle cell
  • Myoepithelial cell of exocrine glands

Ciliated Cells

  • Respiratory tract ciliated cell
  • Uterine endometrial ciliated cell
  • Oviduct ciliated cell
  • Rete testis ciliated cell
  • Ciliated ependymal cell
  • Ductulus efferens ciliated cell

Barrier Function Cells

  • Kidney glomerulus parietal cell
  • Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell
  • Kidney glomerulus podocyte
  • Kidney distal tubule cell
  • Loop of Henle thin segment cell
  • Kidney collecting duct cell
  • Pancreatic duct cell
  • Type I pneumocyte
  • Nonstriated duct cell
  • Intestinal brush border cell
  • Duct cell
  • Gallbladder epithelial cell
  • Exocrine gland striated duct cell
  • Epididymal principal cell
  • Ductulus efferens nonciliated cell
  • Epididymal basal cell

Storage and Metabolism Cells

  • White fat cell
  • Hepatocyte
  • Liver lipocyte
  • Brown fat cell

 Shashank Nakate